Unpleasant taste and odour
Oils of natural origin contain a large number of bioactive components and vitamins. However, they often have an unpleasant taste and odour, for example, fish oil and CBD oil. Similar issues are encountered with herbal dietary supplements, which have a variety of health benefits but not always a pleasant taste or odour. Butyric acid, a natural probiotic, also has an unappetising smell and taste. Producers try to alter the taste and maximise bioavailability by introducing carrier oil, which results in an increase in costs.
The taste isn’t the only challenge. For example, the benefits of many essential oils may decrease as a result of oxidation, chemical interactions or volatilization. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and many lipid-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E and K, as well as β-carotene are prone to oxidation, which limits their shelf-life.
Low bioavailability and solubility
Many dietary supplements are also known to have low bioavailability, which is a hot topic for producers. Some supplements are prone to interactions and moisture. Powdered supplements may also have solubility problems.
Delivery challenge due to pH
Common challenges associated with probiotics are storage and pH survivability. To be beneficial to the gut microbiome, the living microorganisms must reach the intestines where the nutrients are absorbed. But the challenge is how to pass through the acidic environments of the stomach.